Consuls Daniel Bayley, and Henry Savage Yeames, Colonel Cooke, etc
• Επιστολή του προξένου της Βρετανίας στην Οδησσό Henry Savage Yeames (Οδησσός, 21 Μαΐου 1815) προς τον The Right Honorable Lord Viscount Castlereagh, one of His Majesty’s Principal Secretaries of State for the Department of Foreign Affairs στο Λονδίνο, με την οποία μεταξύ άλλων τον ενημερώνει για την λήψη των οδηγιών του περί παρουσίασης της εμπορικής κατάστασης σε Ρωσία και ειδικότερα στην Οδησσό, όπου ο ίδιος είναι υπεύθυνος, με έμφαση στην δασμολογική πολιτική επί των εισαγόμενων και εξαγόμενων προϊόντων, των οδών του χερσαίου εμπορίου και των διαδικασιών εισόδου και εξοδου των αγαθών, αποθήκευσής τους καθώς και των ποινών σε περιπτώσεις απάτης.
1. Are there any articles absolutely prohibited to be imported into the country in which you reside? And if so, what are the articles so prohibited?
All goods are absolutely prohibited to be imported, which are not expressly named and detailed in the tariff of 1811 and its appendix in 1812. All merchandize not specified therein, is, not only confiscated, and solo by public auction, but a fine, equal to the sum this produced, is exacted from the imported: and of these two sums, two thirds are for the benefit of the informer and one third falls to the crown. The prohibitions chiefly fall on British manufactures.
2. Are there any articles prohibited to be imported into such country, except from the place of their growth or production?
All goods not specified in the tariff above mentioned are liable to confiscation, without any modification whatever; except in favor of Turkish produce and manufactures, imported in Turkish bottoms, which are exempt from confiscation and fine, and are simply re-exported.
3. Are there any privileges of importation in favor of ships that are of the built of or belonging to the country in which you are resided?
No distinction whatever is made here, at the ports in the Euxine and Azov seas, between Russian and foreign ships, all pay equal duties, on the goods they bring; with the exception of Portuguese and Spanish wines. The general duty on wine is R.80 slogs head. The Portuguese wines pay only R.20 when brought direct from Portugal, Madeira and Azores in Russian or Portuguese bottoms and for account of Russian or Portuguese subjects, with certificates from the Russian consuls or magistrates at the place of their embarkation. This privilege is in force till the 29th of May this year. Spanish wines, paid formerly only R.28 and 89 cop. per slogs head, when imported under the same circumstances as the Portuguese, with the same precautionary certificates; but this privilege, was aborted some years ago, till it was renewed in 1813 for two years. As yet, no orders for a renewal of these privileges for both nations have been issued but are soon expected. Archipelago wines pay also only R.40 per slogs head, without distinction how they are imported.
4. Is there any difference in the duty on goods when imported into that country in a foreign ship? And if so, is it general, or does it apply only to particular articles?
No difference whatever exists in the pay of duties on goods whether brought in a Russian or foreign ship; all pay according to the same rates, and without distinction of articles, except in the case of Spanish and Portuguese wines as detailed above.
5. What are the rates of duty payable on goods imported into the said country?
I have the honor of inclosing the tariff now in force; in the French language, none being procurable here in the English.
6. Is there any tonnage duty payable on shipping entering inwards or outwards in the country in which you reside?
All ships (even His Majesty’s transports, that come for corn for the Universita of Malta) pay a tonnage duty of 20 cop. and except those under 10 lasts burden. A fine of two dollars is exacted for each last, that is concealed in the declaration of the tonnage. This duty of 20 cop. is paid both on entering and going out of port.
7. Are there any, and if so, what ports in the country where you reside, wherein goods may be warehoused on importation, and afterwards exported, without payment of any duty, and under what regulations?
There are three ports, Odessa and Theodosia in the Euxine and Taganrog in the Sea of Azov, where such goods as are not prohibited by the existing tariff, not liable to spoil, nor of the growth of manufacture of Russia, may be imported and warehoused for the term of eighteen months, without payment of duties, and carried during that time, by land, to Turkish Moldavia, Austria and Russia, duty free, paying however, the following slight impositions, called accidenties; 2 cop. quarantine charges, and 4 cop. for warehouse rent to on the sum the duties produce; when the same goods are imported to remain in the country, or for home consumption, if this to be paid within a fortnight, that the merchandize leaves the quarantine and enters the depot; but if this term elapses without payment, then 4 cop. are added and 10 cop. in all is exacted. If the merchant choose to take his goods out of the depot during the 18 months allowed to keep them here, and declare them for home consumption, on paying the common duties, he is exempted from the payment of these charges or accidenties. If the goods are not carried out of the country, in the space of 18 months, they then become liable to the payment of all the duties. Ships coming into port, with goods on a declaration, that the same are destined for another Russian port or foreign country, are permitted to depart without paying any duties. Government, not having as yet, provided proper warehouses for the above depot of goods, the same are permitted to be put into private warehouses, under the inspection and guard of the Custom House Officers. Prior to 1811, all kinds of goods permitted or prohibited, were allowed to be imported, in order to be carried out of the country, by land carriage; since that time, this trade is restricted only to those articles, which are allowed to be imported, by the present tariff, for home consumption. In consequence of this restriction, this trade is reduced to almost nothing; though it was carried on before to a vast amount, and goods carried from Odessa, even as far as France. A merchant taking out goods from the depot is obliged to find, at least, two persons of credit or give immovable property in security, for the goods being actually carried over the frontiers; and, if in six months, a certificate from the frontier custom house appointed for the passage be not produced, to that purpose, the full duties are then exacted from him or his sureties. A certain trod or road is prescribed to the carriers of the goods, to the frontier custom house, and the least deviation from it, subject them to a service punishment, while the owner of the goods is fined, in the amount of the duties. Certain stations, are appointed for the inspection of the Custom House seals, on the packages, if any be found to have been opened, and goods taken out, or exchanged for others of less value, the owner or his sureties, are fined in the value of the goods purloined, and the remainder confiscated. Tract or road appointed for the Turkish dominions is through the Custom House at Doubosar, on the Dniester in the Government of Kherson. To Austria, by the way of Batra in Podolia, to the frontier Custom House at Ratzivilo in Volhinia. To Russia, the tract laid formerly to Krinsk in the same province, but the Custom House there being abolished during the late plague, none other has as yet been appointed. The trade was first established the 5th March 1804 and the present regulations are to continue in force to the same date, next year.